Old motorcycle for scrap

How to sell ferrous scrap

Author:  Cheburator

The importance of collecting and recycling ferrous metal products (ferrous metal) cannot be overestimated today, because according to statistics, about 90% of the total world metal turnover is made up of steel, cast iron and ferroalloys. Every day, thousands of tons of rusty, obsolete iron are delivered to the metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine in order to leave their walls in the form of brand-new machine tools, machines, building materials and many other useful things made from recycled metal.

The useful life of metal products, despite their matchless strength and durability, is still limited to several decades, and often they simply become obsolete and unnecessary even before the complete wear of their materials. At the same time, the constantly growing volumes of industrial production, the development of recycling technologies and the need for rational use of natural resources have made the metal industry one of the most important sectors for the domestic economy, making it a profitable and rather simple job for all market participants.

Therefore, if you have already accumulated a certain amount of unnecessary products made of ferrous metals, the best way to get rid of such “assets” is to properly collect them, prepare and give them for recycling. When selling old unattended metal to specialized scrap yards you not only get rid of useless trash and earn money, but also make your utmost contribution to the common cause of improving the ecology and economic situation in our country.

Prices for ferrous scrap

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Ferrous scrap is considered the cheapest of all types of scrap metal. Market prices for ferrous metal are unstable and vary significantly throughout the year.

There are a number of factors that directly affect the cost of scrap metal, both in Kharkiv and throughout Ukraine:

  • Grade of metal and chemical composition of its alloy.
    The introduction of special alloying additives (especially nickel) significantly increases the cost of the metal;
  • Size and amount of scrap.
    Homogeneous scrap metal cut into small pieces is valued higher;
  • The current state of the metal.
    A metal dug out of the ground or highly oxidized has harmful impurities (it is better to get rid of them in advance), which reduce its total cost. So, in the metal scrap shop it will be rightly dismissed as a contamination.
  • The need and complexity of additional work related,
    to the dismantling, sorting, loading and transportation of scrap metal.

And if you want to sell scrap metal at an fairly high price and earn 4-5 thousand hryvnias per ton of steel waste without special problems and risks, contact the Cheburator company in Kharkiv. They work without intermediaries and always take metal at high fair prices and weigh it on accurate electronic scales.

Ferrous metals and their properties

Iron and alloys based on it - steel, cast iron and ferroalloys - are classified as ferrous metals. In addition, sometimes metals that are used in the alloying of cast iron — chromium, manganese, and vanadium — fall into this category. Ferrous metals are particularly strong and durable.

Metallurgy, metal industry
Metallurgy (Photo: pixabay.com).

One of the most popular types of ferrous metal is steel, which includes iron alloys with no more than 2.14% carbon, as well as other elements. Carbon makes the metal more durable and hard, but lowers its ductility. And if the alloy contains more than 2.14% carbon, then it is cast iron!

Steel with a low sulfur content is considered to be of higher quality, which increases its ductility, and this is especially important when operating at low temperatures..

By adding various chemical elements to the steel composition, it can be achieved that the alloy will have unique useful properties: frost resistance, heat resistance and resistance to corrosion in humid and aggressive environments. For these purposes, alloying components like manganese, copper, chromium, nickel and others are added to the alloys.

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Steel is a strong ferromagnet; therefore, it is well attracted by a magnet,
making it easy to distinguish steel from other metals in everyday life.

Classification of ferrous scrap

According to the carbon content, ferrous metal products are divided into 3 types: steel scrap, cast iron and stainless steel (rustproof) - a steel alloy with a small addition of chromium, manganese or nickel.

Иногда нержавеющие стали могут относить и к цветным металлам, из-за вхождения в их состав дорогих цветных металлов. Однако в нержавейке ценится только высокое содержание никеля! Наличие хрома или марганца никак не влияет на стоимость этого вида чермет.

By type and previous application, ferrous scrap is divided into following types: lumpy, household and industrial. The lump scrap include metal cut into small pieces. Household items and household appliances are included in household scrap. Industrial metal waste is obtained at enterprises in the process of manufacturing metal products. Mostly it occur in the form of steel shavings.

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To increase the value of ferrous scrap metal, it must be properly sorted before being sent to a scrap shop. According to the DSTU standards, ferrous scrap is divided into categories by the numbers. Here are the most valuable and common of them:

  • №500 – includes lumpy steel and alloy scrap, as well as oversized pieces of steel weighing from 2 to 5 kg and 4 mm thick. Also included in this category are steel scrap (small ferrous scrap) and heavy steel waste intended for thermal and mechanical cutting. A steel pipe of this category should have a diameter of more than 150 mm, and reinforcement - a thickness of more than 10 mm and a length of more than 1 meter.
  • №501 - household and industrial scrap of high-quality metals, light and sheet steel scrap, wire, steel ropes and parts of metal structures. There are no size restrictions here, and the category includes also pipes of various diameters, sheets and rolled metal products.
  • №503 – steel shavings only, including spiral. Scrap of this category is collected for subsequent remelting in special furnaces. The group has no weight restrictions, however, the presence of wire and lump scrap even of the smallest size is not allowed.
  • №506 - waste iron products for subsequent remelting in furnaces.
  • №509 – rusty, galvanized, tinned and enameled metal waste, as well as ferrous scrap, which had been in an aggressive environment. There are no special requirements for size.

Types of steel

Formula of steel and cast iron

Depending on the presence of useful additives, steels are divided into carbon (without special additives) and alloyed (contain alloying impurities to increase the useful properties of the alloy).

In turn, carbon steels are divided into low carbon (carbon content up to 0.25%), medium carbon (0.3–0.55%) and high carbon steels (up to 2% carbon).

For the manufacture of metal products, low and medium carbon steels are more popular. They are used to make hot-rolled pipes, shaped, long and rolled steel.

Low-carbon steel is quite mild and is used for the manufacture of sheet metal, which is subsequently subjected to forging, stamping, profiling or pressure.

Alloyed steels contain various additives that give the metal additional useful properties - reduce brittleness, increase strength, ductility, frost resistance, heat resistance and moisture resistance.

In turn, alloyed steels are divided into low alloyed (alloying components up to 2.5%), medium alloyed (up to 10%) and high alloyed (impurities up to 50%).

Most often, the characteristics of steel are changed using such alloying additives:

  • Manganese - makes steel more resistant to acids, strong and resistant to impact forces.
  • Chrome - increases heat resistance and wear strength, makes steel more resistant to mechanical impact. At a certain chromium content, steel becomes stainless.
  • Silicon - makes steel more resilient, but less viscous. Increases heat resistance.
  • Nickel - increases elasticity and resistance to mechanical loads, without reducing viscosity. With a certain amount of nickel, the steel ceases to magnetize and obtains anticorrosion characteristics or becomes heat resistant.
  • Aluminum - increases heat resistance, makes steel more ductile.
  • Molybdenum and tungsten – increase hardness, strength and heat resistance.
  • Cobalt - increases magnetic properties, gives strength and heat resistance.
  • Vanadium - increases hardness and promotes steel deoxidation (reduction of harmful oxygen content in the alloy).
  • Titanium - promotes deoxidation, makes steel more durable and heat resistant.

Special steels and their categories

Traditionally, special steels include doped alloys having a special chemical composition, which are smelted in a particular way in open-hearth, electric or crucible furnaces.

Modern special steels do not lose their properties even in conditions of vacuum, strong vibrations, aggressive environment, low or extremely high temperatures. Such materials are often used in engineering, shipbuilding, aerospace and military industries.

Scrap rails
Railway (Photo: pixabay.com).

According to their purpose, special steels are divided:

  • Structural - durable and corrosion-resistant alloys from which parts, mechanisms, structures and steel pipes are made.
  • Tool - hard and durable steels from which tableware and various tools are made.
  • Engineering – particularly strong types of steels, which, for their part, are divided into bearing, spring, rail and maraging steels.
  • Stainless steels – resistant to corrosion, which are used in various industries.

Special steels are marked with a sequence of numbers and letters, where the first digit indicates the percentage of carbon, and then the letter with the number indicates the alloying component and its amount. For example, special steel that withstands high temperatures and is resistant to corrosion of 36X18H25C2 grade contains 0.36% carbon, 18% chromium, 25% nickel and 2% silicon.

Use of ferrous metals

Ferrous metals are in demand in all areas where the manufacture of durable and corrosion-resistant structures and parts is required. Almost all products, from a needle or a screw, and ending with car frames, metal fragments of high-rise buildings and parts of spaceships, are made of ferrous metal.

Ferrous metal alloys are the base raw material for many types of industry: building construction, mechanical engineering, aircraft, carriage, shipbuilding industries, as well as medicine, military, space and other fields.

Where I can find ferrous metal scrap

For several centuries, cast iron and steel products were used almost everywhere, which means that scrap of ferrous metals can now be found wherever active human activity took place, both in open form and buried in the ground, or flooded underwater.

Tractor plow
Agricultural machinery (Photo: pixabay.com).
  • Vehicles and communications:
    • pipes for gas and oil pipelines;
    • old cars;
    • motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles;
    • agricultural machinery, its components and parts (caterpillar tracks of tractors, seeders, plows);
    • rails for the railway;
    • catamarans and anchors for various vessels.
  • Construction:
    • nails, screws and other small accessories;
    • metal profiles for the construction of buildings;
    • iron pickets, rods and metal pipes;
    • locksmith and installation tools;
    • consumables for tools: drills, milling cutters, metal parts of axes and saws;
  • Production:
    • machines and industrial plants;
    • bushings, gears, rolls;
    • elements of bearings and valves;
    • different springs, friction discs, washers;
    • profiling rollers, punching and perforating dies, punches, tools working with impact loads;
    • metal waste (shavings).
  • Machine tool industry:
    • supporting shafts of rolling mills for cold and hot rolling of metals.
  • Chemical industry:
    • tanks, vessels, reactors, pipes and other equipment.
  • Aerospace industry:
    • equipment for airliners and spacecraft (often made from special steels);
    • aircraft engines, turbine blades.
  • Medicine and healthcare:
    • tools, devices and equipment.
  • Military sphere:
    • old military equipment;
    • cartridges and shells;
    • iron targets (can be found on abandoned military sites).
  • Household appliances:
    • refrigerators;
    • washing machines;
    • gas stoves;
    • electrical goods.
  • Household products:
    • springs and furniture details;
    • dishes, knives and other kitchen utensils;
    • batteries and cast-iron bathtubs;
    • needles.
  • Tourist, sports and fishing equipment:
    • sports equipment, fishing and hunting equipment.

How to collect and prepare ferrous metal for scrappage

There are hundreds of metal scrap shops in Kharkiv nowadays, where you can sell scrap metal - the demand for these wastes has always been high. However, in order to get the maximum amount for the metal and not to get victim of the fraud, it is better to contact large companies and prepare for the scrappage in advance:

  1. Estimate the approximate amount, type and condition of scrap metal. Write on paper all the collected information. It will be useful to take photos of scrap metal, especially if there is a lot of it, and it is hard to determine the type and composition.
  2. Search the Internet for several scrap metal yards that are located nearby and are trustworthy. Call them and find out the current average price level, taking into account contamination range of your type of scrap.
  3. Disassemble complex products into smaller units and parts.
  4. Clean metal from dirt, rust, plastic, glass, cement and other non-metallic substances. You can get rid of plastic quite easily by firing the products outside.
  5. Sort the scrap metal according to the categories. This will reduce the likelihood that the acceptors will lower the price upon delivery, reasonably taking into account percentage of blockage.
  6. Bargain if you have significant amount of metal (more than a ton). No one can ban you to take scrap to the place where more favorable conditions will be offered.
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Experience has shown that implementation of this painstaking and boring work still helps to gain up to 30% on scrappage of ferrous metal in the total.

Do you still have questions?

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Be sure to call us in order to get clear and understandable answers from real experts on scrap metal, as well as to resolve all issues related to the dismantling and pick up of metal waste quickly and profitably.

Good luck in scrappage!